Diperkirakan Danau Toba terbentuk saat ledakan sekitar 73.000-75.000 tahun yang lalu dan merupakan letusan supervolcano (gunung berapi super) yang paling baru. Bill Rose dan Craig Chesner dari Michigan Technological University memperkirakan bahwa jumlah total material pada letusan sekitar 2.800 km3 -sekitar 2.000 km3 dari Ignimbrit yang mengalir di atas tanah, dan sekitar 800 km3 yang jatuh sebagai abu terutama ke barat. Aliran piroklastik dari letusan menghancurkan area seluas 20.000 km2, dengan deposito abu setebal 600 m dengan kawah utama.
Kejadian ini menyebabkan kematian massal dan kepunahan pada beberapa spesies makhluk hidup. Menurut beberapa bukti DNA, letusan ini juga menyusutkan jumlah manusia sampai sekitar 60% dari jumlah populasi manusia bumi saat itu, yaitu sekitar 60 juta manusia. Letusan itu juga ikut menyebabkan terjadinya zaman es, walaupun para ahli masih memperdebatkannya. Setelah letusan tersebut, terbentuk kaldera yang kemudian terisi oleh air dan menjadi yang sekarang dikenal sebagai Danau Toba. Tekanan ke atas oleh magma yang belum keluar menyebabkan munculnya Pulau Samosir.
Danau Toba dengan Pulau Samosir di bagian tengahnya.
Tim peneliti multidisiplin internasional, yang dipimpin oleh Dr. Michael Petraglia, mengungkapkan dalam suatu konferensi pers di Oxford, Amerika Serikat bahwa telah ditemukan situs arkeologi baru yang cukup spektakuler oleh para ahli geologi di selatan dan utara India. Di situs itu terungkap bagaimana orang bertahan hidup, sebelum dan sesudah letusan gunung berapi (supervolcano) Toba pada 74.000 tahun yang lalu, dan bukti tentang adanya kehidupan di bawah timbunan abu Gunung Toba. Padahal sumber letusan berjarak 3.000 mil, dari sebaran abunya.
Selama tujuh tahun, para ahli dari universitas Oxford tersebut meneliti proyek ekosistem di India, untuk mencari bukti adanya kehidupan dan peralatan hidup yang mereka tinggalkan di padang yang gundul. Daerah dengan luas ribuan hektare ini ternyata hanya sabana (padang rumput). Sementara tulang belulang hewan berserakan. Tim menyimpulkan, daerah yang cukup luas ini ternyata ditutupi debu dari letusan gunung berapi purba.
Penyebaran debu gunung berapi itu sangat luas, ditemukan hampir di seluruh dunia. Berasal dari sebuah erupsi supervolcano purba, yaitu Gunung Toba. Dugaan mengarah ke Gunung Toba, karena ditemukan bukti bentuk molekul debu vulkanik yang sama di 2100 titik. Sejak kaldera kawah yang kini jadi danau Toba di Indonesia, hingga 3000 mil, dari sumber letusan. Bahkan yang cukup mengejutkan, ternyata penyebaran debu itu sampai terekam hingga Kutub Utara. Hal ini mengingatkan para ahli, betapa dahsyatnya letusan super gunung berapi Toba kala itu.
Raja Ampat, is a regency and groups of islands that located in the tip of Bird’s Head Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, precisely in West Papua province. Raja Ampat has 610 islands, which is only 35 islands that have been inhabited, the rest areun inhabited and even nameless. The famous islands in Raja Ampat are Misool island, Salawati, Batanta, and Waigeo island.
The area of Raja Ampat is often touted as the best reef areas in the world. The marine biota has beauty that can easily captivated by the tourists.
The origin name of Raja Ampat,according to local myth, is coming from a woman who found seven eggs. Four grains of which hatch into four princes who separated and each became the king who ruled in Waigeo, Salawati, East Misool and West Misool. Meanwhile, three other eggs became a ghost, a woman, and a stone. The names of the kings are:
- War became king in Waigeo
- Bethany became king in Salawati
- Dohar became king in Lilinta
- Mohamad became king in Waigama
Raja Ampat islands are the potential place to be the greatest tourism object relating their marine spots. Raja Ampat Islands, according to various sources, is one of the 10 best waters for diving sites around the world. In fact, it may also be recognized as number one for the completeness of underwater flora and fauna at this time. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat area is the highest recorded on Earth. The diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world’s coral reef biodiversity, making Raja Ampat quite possibly to be the richest coral reef ecosystems in the world.
Juan Martín del Potro Lucas (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxʷwän mäɾˈtin̪‿d̪e̞l ˈpo̜tɾo̜], born 23 September 1988), also known as Delpo, is an Argentine professional tennis player. His biggest achievement was winning the 2009 US Open, defeating Rafael Nadal in the semifinal and 5-time defending champion Roger Federer in the final. He was the first to defeat both Federer and Nadal during the same major and was the only man outside the Big Four to win a major between the 2005 French Open and the 2013 US Open, a span of 35 tournaments. He is also the second Argentine and the fifth-youngest man to win the US Open in the Open Era. Other career highlights include winning the bronze medal in men’s singles at the 2012 London Olympics, the silver medal in men’s singles at the 2016 Rio Olympics and being part of his country’s successful Davis Cup team; but his career has also been hampered by a succession of wrist injuries.
Del Potro achieved a top-10 ranking by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) for the first time on 6 October 2008. In January 2010, he reached a career-high ranking of world No. 4, after which del Potro had to withdraw from most of the tournaments in 2010 due to a right wrist injury. He returned in 2011 and was back to world No.4 in January 2014 but had to withdraw from competition due to another wrist injury, but this time to his left wrist.
Christina María Aguilera (born December 18, 1980) is an American singer, songwriter, actress and television personality. Born in Staten Island, New York and raised in Rochester and Wexford, Pennsylvania, she appeared on the television series Star Search and The Mickey Mouse Club in her early years. After recording “Reflection“, the theme for Disney‘s 1998 film Mulan, Aguilera signed with RCA Records. She rose to prominence with her 1999 self-titled debut album that spawned the Billboard Hot 100 number one singles; “Genie in a Bottle“, “What a Girl Wants“, and “Come On Over Baby (All I Want Is You)“. The following year, Aguilera released two studio albums; the Spanish-language album Mi Reflejo and the holiday album My Kind of Christmas. She assumed creative control for her fourth studio album, Stripped (2002), which produced “Dirrty“, “Beautiful“, and “Fighter“. Aguilera’s fifth studio album, Back to Basics (2006), debuted at number one on the album charts of ten countries and spawned the tracks “Ain’t No Other Man” and “Hurt“. In 2010, Aguilera released her sixth studio album Bionic and starred in the film Burlesque. The following year, she debuted as a coach on the reality competition television series The Voice; she has since appeared on six of its twelve seasons. Her seventh studio album, Lotus, was released in 2012. Aguilera has also been featured on several successful collaborations during her career, including
Javier Zanetti was born on August 10, 1973 in Dock Sud, Avellaneda, Buenos Aires, Argentina as Javier Adelmar Zanetti. He has been married to Paula de la Fuente
since December 23, 1999. They have three children.
He began his footballing career at the age of 19.
Apart from playing for Italian club Internazionale Milano (June 1995 – May 2014) and Argentine club Talleres de Escalada (1992 – 1993), he also played for Argentine club Banfield (1993 – 1995).
Won the silver medal with Argentina in the 1996 Olympic Games.
John Francis Bongiovi, Jr., famously known as Jon Bon Jovi, is one of the world’s best-selling music artists and the lead singer of the band ‘Bon Jovi’. He is also known for his solo albums and acting career in Hollywood. Jovi was born in New Jersey in a middle class family and knew since a very young age that he is going to be a rock star one day. He was not interested in studies and instead devoted his time in playing music and singing with local bands and recording demos at his cousin’s recording studio. Soon he was noticed by New Jersey radio station and he, along with his band mates, signed his first deal and became an international craze soon after. Along with his musical career, he has always worked hard for his acting stints in movies and television. Jovi’s film career has been interesting as he started with small-time cameos and ultimately got lead roles in movies like ‘The Leading Man’ and ‘Moonlight and Valentino’. He also ventured out in the world of business with his record label ‘Jambco Records’, management company ‘Bon Jovi Management’ and professional arena football team ‘Philadelphia Soul’. He is socially active and is the founder of the charitable foundation ‘The Jon Bon Jovi Soul Foundation’; reason why he was appointed by President Obama to the White House Council for Community Services.